Jews have played a very important role in the economy of the Czech lands ever since they first began settling here in the 10th century: the region’s economic life depended on the money market, in which Jews dominated. Even though the Jews constantly had to cope with hatred from their surroundings and disfavor from the nobility, they managed to uphold their strong economic position. The truly impressive ascent of the Jewish citizenry in the Czech economy began alongside the Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, and gained further momentum when the Habsburg Monarchy granted them equal rights in the 1860s. Thus Jewish industrialists, entrepreneurs, and businessmen were among the founders of modern industry in a wide range of entrepreneurial branches in the Czech lands. Likewise, many Jewish scientists significantly contributed to the advancement of scientific and technological development through their inventions. The “Jewish Industrialists and Entrepreneurs” exhibition evokes the atmosphere of an era that was very conducive towards the development of industry and private enterprise – a boom time for many fields. Jews’ role in the development of industry in what is now the Czech Republic is presented through the lens of selected branches of heavy and light industry, services, and other entrepreneurial activities in which Jewish industrialists and entrepreneurs in the Czech lands were generally the most successful, as well as through those branches that were traditionally Jewish. Also represented are those individuals whose ideas, inventive methodologies, or sheer influence helped modernize individual branches of business and industry.